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There is a hadeeth reported by Imām Muslim in his Saheeh (no. 482) from Abu Hurayrah (radiyallāhu ‘anhu) that the Prophet (salallāhu ‘alaihi wasallam) said:
أَقْرَبُ مَا يَكُونُ الْعَبْدُ مِنْ رَبِّهِ وَهُوَ سَاجِدٌ فَأَكْثِرُوا الدُّعَاءَ
“The closest a servant comes to his Lord is when he is in sajdah, so make plentiful du’ā (in sajdah).”
Imām Muslim (no. 479) also narrated from Ibn ‘Abbās (radiyallāhu ‘anhumā) that the Prophet (salallāhu ‘alaihi wasallam) said:
أَلاَ وَإِنِّي نُهِيتُ أَنْ أَقْرَأَ الْقُرْآنَ رَاكِعًا أَوْ سَاجِدًا فَأَمَّا الرُّكُوعُ فَعَظِّمُوا فِيهِ الرَّبَّ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَأَمَّا السُّجُودُ فَاجْتَهِدُوا فِي الدُّعَاءِ فَقَمِنٌ أَنْ يُسْتَجَابَ لَكُمْ
“Surely I have been prohibited from reciting the Qur’an in rukoo’ (bowing) and in sajdah (prostration). As for the rukoo’, then extol the greatness of the Lord (the Mighty and Majestic) in it. As for the sujood, then strive in it with supplication (du’ā) because it is fitting that your supplications will be answered.” Meaning that is worthy that your supplications will be answered (in that state).
Making du’ā while prostrating (in sujood) is legislated in the Sharee’ah, so it is important that one supplicates plentifully in sajdah―and there is no limit placed on the supplication. Indeed, a person can supplicate for whatever Allah makes easy for him from the fulfilment of his needs. However, if he supplicates with du’ās that have been reported in the Sunnah from the Prophet (salallāhu ‘alaihi wasallam), then that is better.
From the supplications of the Prophet (salallāhu ‘alaihi wasallam) of the sujood is:
اللَّهُمَّ اغْفِرْ لِي ذَنْبِي كُلَّهُ دِقَّهُ وَجِلَّهُ وَأَوَّلَهُ وَآخِرَهُ وَعَلاَنِيَتَهُ وَسِرَّهُ
“O Allah, forgive all my sins, small and great, the first and last, the open and secret.” (Muslim, no. 483)
As for the supplication:
اللَّهُمَّ اغْفِرْ لِي وَارْحَمْنِي وَاهْدِنِي وَعَافِنِي وَارْزُقْنِ
“O Allah, forgive me, have mercy upon me, guide me, grant me safety and wellbeing, and give me provision.” (Muslim, no. 2697) ―Ibn ‘Abbās stated that the Prophet (salallāhu ‘alaihi wasallam) would recite this while sitting between the two sajdahs―but if a person was to recite this in the sujood or at the end of the tahiyyāt (i.e. at the end of the tashahhud before finishing the Prayer), or if he was to make du’ā for any other need he has, then there is no harm in that. For example, he can say: “O Allah, cure me of this sickness,” or “O Allah, grant me a righteous wife,” or “O Allah, give me pious children” ―so these supplications and what is similar to them are fine. Allah’s Messenger (salallāhu ‘alaihi wasallam) did not specify some supplications to the exclusion of others; rather he said: “The closest a servant comes to his Lord is when he is prostrating himself in sajdah, so make plenty of du’ā in this state.” So this encompasses supplications that have been reported in texts or those which have not been reported as has been mentioned previously.
And no distinction is to be made in the supplications between the obligatory (Fard) prayers and the voluntary (Nafl) prayers due to the general meaning contained in the first two hadeeths mentioned above. And Allah is the One who grants guidance and success.
Majmoo’ Fatāwā Ibn Bāz 29/292 (slightly abridged)
Additional point: If a person has not memorised the supplications, or they do not know the Arabic language, then it is permitted to supplicate to Allah in their own language (asking only for that which is permissible) since that encompasses the meaning of the two hadeeths cited at the beginning of the speech of Shaikh Ibn Bāz (rahimahullāh).
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Asalamu alaykum, is it permissible to make dua with Quranic supplications in sujood?
Quran in Sajdah as a Dua…