Part 12: The Qur’ān is the Speech of Allāh, Uncreated and a Refutation of the Opposers ― The Foundations of the Sunnah of Imām Ahmad Ibn Hanbal: Benefits from Shaikh An-Najmī.

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In the name of Allāh, Most Merciful, the Bestower of Mercy.

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All praise is due to Allah, the Lord of all creation, may Allah extol the mention of our noble Prophet Muhammad in the highest company of Angels, bless him and give him peace and security―and his family, his Companions and all those who follow him correctly until the establishment of the Hour.

Added notes from Abu Khadeejah Abdul-Wāhid.

The Qur’ān is the Speech of Allah and it is not Created

We have now reached the point in Usool us-Sunnah regarding the Qur’ān being the Speech of Allah (the Most High), and that it is not created. Imām Ahmad bin Hanbal (rahimahullāh) said:

والقرآن كلام الله وليس بمخلوق ولا يضعف أن يقول: ليس بمخلوق فإن كلام الله ليس ببائن منه, وليس منه شيء مخلوق

وإياك ومناظرة من أحدث فيه, ومن قال باللفظ وغيره, ومن وقف فيه, فقال: لا أدري مخلوق أو ليس بمخلوق, وإنما هو كلام الله فهذا صاحب بدعة مثل من قال: (هو مخلوق). وإنما هو كلام الله ليس بمخلوق.

“The Qur’ān is the Speech of Allah, and it is not created. And a person should not be too weak to say ‘it is not created’, for indeed the Speech of Allah is not something distinct and separate from Him, and not a single thing from it is created.

And beware of argumentation with the one who innovates in this matter and says that his recitation of the Qur’ān is created and other such claims. And whoever hesitates in this matter and says, ‘I do not know whether it is created or not created, it is but the Speech of Allah,’ then he is a person of innovation and he is just like the one who said, ‘It is created.’ Indeed it is the Speech of Allah and it is not created.”


The above statement of Imām Ahmad explains concisely the belief of Ahlus-Sunnah, upon which there is ijmā (consensus), regarding the Qur’ān: that it is the Speech of Allah, and it is not created. Allah’s Speech (Kalām) is an attribute from the Attributes of Allah, and therefore it is not created. As for the sect known as the Lafdhiyah who introduced ambiguities with respect to the Qur’ān, saying statements such as ‘My recitation of the Qur’ān is created,’ then they wish to draw people away from the original saying which is that the Qur’ān is the Speech of Allah, not created.

The reason why Ahlul-Bid’ah entered into disputation regarding the Speech of Allah and asserted that it was created was because they saw it as an entry point to negate the rest of Allah’s Attributes under the same guise and rationale. Since they claimed that Allah’s Speech is created, then it would be a gateway for them to claim that the rest of Allah’s Attributes are also created. That was the goal of the Jahmiyyah and those who follow them from their offshoots, i.e., to negate from Allah (the Most High) that which He has affirmed for Himself of Attributes and Actions.

The one who declares: ‘I do not know whether it is created or not created, it is but the Word of Allah,’ then he is a person of misguidance and innovation because he has withheld from affirming for Allah that which He (the Most High) has affirmed for himself.

Allah (the Most High) described and called the Qur’ān His Speech when He said:

وَإِنْ أَحَدٌ مِّنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ اسْتَجَارَكَ فَأَجِرْهُ حَتَّىٰ يَسْمَعَ كَلَامَ اللَّهِ

“And if anyone of the polytheists seeks your protection, then grant him protection so that he may hear the Speech of Allah (i.e., the Qur’ān)…” (Surah at-Tawbah 9:6)

In this noble ayah, Allah (the Most High) describes the Qur’ān as His Speech, and it is that which the Messenger (salallāhu ‘alaihi wasallam) would recite, and the polytheists would hear. So this ayah proves that the recitation of the Messenger (salallāhu ‘alaihi wasallam) and the believers is referred to as the Speech of Allah (kalāmallāh).

Likewise, Allah (the Most High) said:

أَلَا لَهُ الْخَلْقُ وَالْأَمْرُ ۗ

“His is the creation and His is the command.” (Surah al-A’rāf 7:54)

The scholars mention that Allah (the Most High) made a distinction here between the creation and between His command. His creation is created, and as for His command, then this is His Speech which is not created. The great scholar and Imām, Sufyān ibn ‘Uyaynah (d.198 H, rahimahullāh) said, ‘The creation is that which Allah has created, and as for the command [in the ayah], then it is the Qur’ān,’ (Reported by Imām al-Ājurrī in Kitāb ash-Sharee’ah 1/222, 2458, no. 86, hasan) This statement of Ibn ‘Uyaynah is a strong refutation of the Jahmiyyah.

‘Umar (radiyallahu ‘anhu) would say, “The Qur’ān is the Speech of Allah, so do not deviate away from it with your opinions.” (Al-Ājurrī in Ash-Sharee’ah, 1/215, 168, no. 70).

Therefore, we say that Allah (the Most High) speaks, and He spoke to Musa (‘alaihis-salām) and also to the Prophets whom He mentioned in the Qur’ān. He spoke to the Prophet Muhammad (salallāhu ‘alaihi wasallam) on the night of Isrā and Mi’rāj. Allah (the Most High) speaks when He wants, to whom He wants at and appointed time, so He speaks in accordance to His will, whenever He wills, and this is denied by the Ash’aris who deviated from the Creed of Ahlus-Sunnah.

Allah does not cease to be described with Kalām (Speech), His Speech is an attribute of His that is eternal (Dhātiyah). His Speech is also Fi’liyyah, i.e., He speaks whenever He wills, to whomever He wills.

Likewise, Allah the Most High speaks with a Voice (Sawt) as occurs in the Hadeeth collected by Imām al-Bukhāri in al-Adab al-Mufrad that on the Day of Judgement, Allah will speak to the believers and there will not be an interpreter between Him and them. He will speak to them with a voice that will be heard by those who are near and those who are far.

Allah (the Most High) speaks with words and letters. The Prophet (salallāhu ‘alaihi wasallam) said,

مَنْ قَرَأَ حَرْفًا مِنْ كِتَابِ اللَّهِ فَلَهُ بِهِ حَسَنَةٌ وَالْحَسَنَةُ بِعَشْرِ أَمْثَالِهَا لَا أَقُولُ الم حَرْفٌ وَلَكِنْ أَلِفٌ حَرْفٌ وَلَامٌ حَرْفٌ وَمِيمٌ حَرْفٌ

Whoever recites a letter from Allah’s Book will receive one reward as ten rewards like it. I do not say that ‘Alif-Lam-Meem’ is one letter, but rather Alif is a letter, Lam is a letter, and Mim is a letter.” (At-Tirmidhi, 2910, authentic)

The Sayings of the Scholars regarding the Qur’ān and their Efforts in Preserving the Correct ‘Aqeedah

The great scholar of Madeenah and the Ummah in his time, Mālik bin Anas Ibn ‘Āmir Ibn ‘Amr, Abu ‘Abdillah (d. 179 H rahimahullah)—about whom Imām Al-Bukhāri said that the most authentic of all of the chains of narration is from Mālik, from Nāfi’ from Ibn ‘Umar—said, ‘The Qur’ān is the Speech of Allah, and despicable is the saying of the one who says that the Qur’ān is created. The one who says that the Qur’ān is created should be punished, beaten and imprisoned until he dies.’ (Reported by Imām Al-Ājurrī in Ash-Sharee’ah, 1/220, 179, no. 81, saheeh).

Imām Ash-Shāfi’i—and he is Abu Abdillāh Muhammad Ibn Idrees Ibn Al-Abbās bin ‘Uthmān (d. 204 H rahimahullah) said, ‘The Qur’ān is the Speech of Allah, and it is not created, and whoever says that it is created is an unbeliever.’ (Reported by Imām Al-Ājurrī in Ash-Sharee’ah, 1/223, 190, no. 92, with an authentic chain of narration, and also by Imām al-Lālakā’i in Sharh Usool ‘Itiqād Ahlus Sunnah wal Jamā’ah, 1-2/278, 419)

We also have the statement of Imām Ahmad, who stood firm and spoke the truth when he was put to trial and beaten and imprisoned, and refused to say that the Qur’ān was created, rather he would say, ‘How can I say anything that opposes that which Allah and His Messenger (salallāhu ‘alaihi wasallam) have said?’ So, Allah (the Most High) supported the Sunnah and aided the Truth and clarified the Straight Path by way of Imām Ahmad Ibn Hanbal. Allah (the Exalted) preserves His religion through such men.

‘Ali Al-Madeenī (d. 234 H rahimahullah) who was one of those who conceded and relented when threatened with punishment, said, “Allah aided Islām by way of Abu Bakr As-Siddique in the time of apostasy, and Allah aided the religion by way of Ahmad bin Hanbal in the time of the trial of the Qur’an.” So, may Allah give Imām Ahmad and abundant and copious reward, and have mercy upon him, the mercy that is due for the pious believers. May Allah’s mercy be upon all of the Salaf who stood up for the Truth. They are mujāhideen in making the truth apparent, and may He make us alongside them and enter us among them, besides all of the shortcomings that we have, wallāhul musta’ān! (Read about the Mihnah (Trial) of Imām Ahmad in Al-Bidāyah wan-Nihāyah on Ibn Katheer, 10/330-335)

The Groups with Respect to the Qur’ān

The innovators in this issue are divided into various categories.

One group: They are the Mu’tazilah, Jahmiyyah and those who followed them said that the Qur’ān is created, and the Salaf declared them to be kuffār.

Another group said: ‘Our recitation of the Qur’ān is created.’ The Salaf ruled that these people are innovators. Imām Al-Bukhāri (d. 256 H, rahimahullāh) was one of the first of the scholars to write a book regarding this issue called ‘Khalq Af’āl Al-’Ibād’ (‘The Createdness of the Actions of the People’). In this book Imām Al-Bukhārī reported the hadeeth of Abu Musa al-Ash’ari (radiyallāhu ‘anhu) where the Messenger of Allah (salallāhu ‘alaihi wasallam) passed by whilst he was praying and reciting the Qur’ān. So, the Prophet (salallāhu ‘alaihi wasallam) said, ‘This one has been given a flute from the flutes of the people of Dāwud.’ In another narration, Abu Musa said to the Messenger of Allah (salallāhu ‘alaihi wasallam), ‘Had I known that you were listening, I would have beautified it further.’ (Al-Bukhārī, no. 793). Therefore, we say that the voices of the people differ, just as the handwriting differs. All of this supports that which has preceded that the voice (sawt) that the Qur’ān is recited with is created, and the Qur’ān itself is not created.

The intent of the Lafdhiyah however, was not simply that the organs and voice-box are created. Rather, they said that their recitation of the Qur’ān is created and that the Speech of Allah is not heard due to their claim that the utterance or recital of the Qur’ān is created. This opposes the saying of Allah in His Book mentioned earlier from Surah At-Tawbah, “So that he may hear the Speech of Allah.” (See ‘Aqā’id ath-Thalāth was-Sabā’een Firqah, 1/294, Al-Ājurri in Ash-Sharee’ah, 1/235)

Imām Ahmad bin Hanbal (rahimahullah) refuted the Lafdhiyah and the Jahmiyyah. He refuted Husain Ibn ‘Ali Al-Karabeesī Al-Baghdādī (d. 245 or 248 H), who was known to be a scholar of Sunnah before he deviated—he used to be a companion of Imām Ash-Shāfi’ī, and was considered virtuous and truthful until he deviated, and Imām Ahmad spoke against him and refuted him in this issue of ‘Al-Lafdh’ because Al-Karabeesī said, “My utterance of the Qur’ān is created.” (See At-Taqreeb 1/217)

Imām Ahmad Ibn Hanbal (rahimahullāh) did not refute him because he made this general and unrestricted statement that could carry different possibilities. If Imām Ahmad had left it, and not refuted the likes of these sayings, then the innovators would have used it to deceive and trick the people. Therefore Imām Ahmad cut the disease at its root. He forbade that people speak about it because it would lead the people to the saying of the Jahmiyyah. If they say, ‘My recitation of the Qur’ān is created,’ therefore what you are listening to is a creation! And this was what Imām Ahmad wanted to avoid because it would lead then to the saying of the Jahmiyyah that the Qur’ān is created!

Therefore, when we speak about this matter, we do so for the purpose of knowledge concerning it—and it is not allowed for anyone to leave this term general/unrestricted and say, ‘My utterance of the Qur’ān is created.’ Whoever says these words is an innovator who is called to repent to Allah.

There are many narrations from the time of Imām Ahmad regarding this affair of the Qur’ān. Isma’eel ibn Hasan As-Sirāj said, “I asked Ahmad about the one who said that the Qur’ān is created, so Imām Ahmad said, ‘He is a kāfir.’” So then he asked about the one who says, ‘My recital of the Qur’ān is created.’ So he said that he is a Jahmi Mubtadi’ (innovator). This is because if a person says this in a general unrestricted manner without detail, then this opens the door for the people to enter into the speech of the Jahmiyyah.

Ahmad Ibn Zanjaway said that he heard Imām Ahmad say, “The Lafdhiyyah are worse than the Jahmiyyah.” This is because the bid’ah of the Jahmiyyah is clear—they say that the Qur’ān is created. But as for the Lafdhiyyah, they try to come between Ahlus-Sunnah and the Jahmiyyah like a bridge to draw people away from the sound, correct ‘Aqeedah. These types are found close to the grave-worshippers, the Khawārij, the Sufiyyah, the Ash’ariyyah, etc., who try to build bridges between the people of truth and the people of falsehood in order to lead people away from the Straight Path.

Sālih, the son of Imām Ahmad (rahimahullāh) said that he heard his father say, “The Jahmiyyah are three sects: a sect who say that the Qur’ān is created, a sect who say that it is the Speech of Allah, and then remain silent (Al-Waqfiyyah: those who withhold) and a sect who say, ‘Our recital is created.’” Then he said “One should not pray behind those who withhold and remain silent, nor those who say that their recital is created.”

Al-Marroodhi, one of the senior students of Imām Ahmad,(rahimahullah) said, “I informed Abu ‘Abdillāh (Imām Ahmad) that Abu Shu’ayy as-Soosi ar-Raqqi separated between his daughter and her husband when he withheld with respect to the Qur’ān.” On hearing this Imām Ahmad said: “He did well, may Allah protect him and keep him well.” Then he started to make additional supplications for him. This is the position of the Salaf and the great Imāms, showing their courageous, such that a man will take his daughter away from a person who withheld with respect to the Qur’ān, i.e., those who say: ‘I do not say it is created and I do not say that it is not created, rather it is just the Speech of Allah’ — not taking a position either way.

Al-Marroodhi (rahimahullah) further stated that there are many narrations from Imām Ahmad regarding a person’s recital: the first one to speak with it was Husain Ibn ‘Ali al-Karabeesi, who was a storehouse of knowledge. He wrote a book in which he criticised the Companion ‘Abdullah ibn az-Zubayr (radiyallāhu ‘anhumā) saying that he was from the Khawārij. Imām Ahmad then warned against al-Karabeesi which infuriated him so he said, ‘Today I will say something and Ibn Hanbal will say the opposite, and when he does so he will become a kāfir.’ So, he said, ‘The Qur’ān is not created but my recitation of the Qur’ān is created, and whoever does not say that his recitation of the Qur’ān is created, then he is a kāfir.’ When Imām Ahmad heard this, he said, ‘Rather he is the one who has disbelieved, may Allah kill him. What is the saying of the Jahmiyyah except this? How can it benefit him when the last part of his statement contradicts the first part?’ Imām Ahmad was concerned about the effect that the statement of al-Karabeesi would have on others so he asked, ‘What is the news from Abu Thawr? Has he agreed with al-Karabeesi on this?’ To which al-Marroodhi replied, ‘No-rather he has deserted him.’ So Imām Ahmad said, ‘He has done well, for indeed the people of kalām (theological speculation) will never prosper.’ This is the position of Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamā’ah.

The First People to Claim that the Qur’ān was Created

The issue of the creation of the Qur’ān is not something that arose all of a sudden in the time of Imām Ahmad (rahimahullāh), rather the first of the people to say that the Qur’ān was created and to deny the Speech of Allah was Ja’d bin Dirham who was executed in 124 AH, over 100 years before the death of Imām Ahmad, indeed 40 years or so before he was born (rahimahullāh).

When they heard of Ja’d’s wicked saying, the rulers of Banu Umayyah called for him so he fled to Kufa in ‘Irāq. He was caught and arrested and then executed on the day of ‘Eid ul-Adha by Khālid bin ‘Abdullah al-Qusari. During the course of his khutbah on ‘Eid, he said, ‘O people! Sacrifice your animals and may Allah accept your sacrifices. As for me, I will sacrifice Ja’d ibn Dirham, indeed he claims that Allah did not take Ibraheem (‘alaihis-salām) as His friend, and that He did not speak to Musa (‘alaihis-salām) directly. High is Allah, the Exalted, above what Ja’d has said!’ Then Khālid al-Qusari descended from the pulpit and executed Ja’d ibn Dirham.

However, before Ja’d was executed he passed his innovation to his successor who was Jahm bin Safwān who he met in Koofah. Jahm was also fled, the he was captured and executed due to his wicked innovations, but not before he passed it on to Bishr al-Mareesi (d. 218 H), the head of the Jahmiyyah and their scholar in his time. He was from the people of opinion who busied himself with ‘Ilm al-Kalām (theological rhetoric and speculation). He claimed (amongst other evil things) that the Qur’ān was created. The scholars of the Salaf declared him to be an unbeliever. His followers are known as the ‘Mareesiyyah.’ After Bishr al-Mareesi came Ahmad Ibn Abee Duwād who also spread this innovation—he was the one who instigated the punishment and torture of Imām Ahmad (rahimahullāh). He was from the ones who encouraged the ruler Al-Ma’moon to set up the Trial (al-Mihnah) and compel people to say that the Qur’ān was created, and Al-Bishr.

One may ask ‘Where did Ja’d bin Dirham come by this innovated and false saying?’ In this regard, we have what is reported by Ibn Asākir and others who said, “Al-Ja’ad Ibn Dirham took his saying from Bayān ibn Sam’ān, and Bayān ibn Sam’ān [5] took it from Tāloot the son of the sister of Labeed ibn al-A’sam, and Tāloot took it from his maternal uncle Labeed. And he is the Jew who did magic upon Allah’s Messenger (salallāhu ‘alaihi wasallam), and he used to say that the Tawrāt was created!” (See al-Bidāyah wan-Nihāyah 9/350, Al-Wasā’il fi Ma’rifatil-Awā’il of as-Suyooti 131-132.)

This Bayān ibn Sam’ān an-Nahdi from Bani Tamīm. He appeared in Iraq sometime after 100 AH. He claimed that ‘Ali (radiyallāhu ‘anhu) was divine and that he had within him a divine portion united with his human portion. And then divinity passed after him to Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah (his son) and then to Abu Hāshim the son of Ibn al-Hanafiyyah and then after him to Bayān ibn Sam’ān. Ibn Numair said: “Khālid ibn Abdul-Malik al-Qusree executed him and burnt him in a fire.” (See Mizaan al-I’tidaal 1/357)

Voice and Speech, the Ash’arite Deviation

Shaikh Al-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah (رحمه الله) stated:

“There is not from the imams and the Salaf anyone who said: ‘Allah does not speak with a voice (صوت).’ Rather, it is established from the Salaf and the imams (leaders in knowledge) that Allah speaks with a voice. And this has been reported in well-known narrations from the Salaf and the imams. The Salaf and the great scholars would make mention of the narrations wherein it is stated that Allah speaks with a voice and no one from them would ever reject that. Indeed, Abdullah Ibn Ahmad said: ‘I said to my father (i.e. Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal): ‘There are some people who say that Allah does not speak with a voice?’ He replied: ‘My son! These people are Jahmiyyah, they wish to negate the Attribute.’ He then mentioned some narrations in that regard.

And the position of Imam Al-Bukhari in his Kitāb Khalq Al-Af’āl is clear in stating that Allah speaks with a voice and he makes a distinction between the Voice of Allah and the voices of the creation. Bukhari reported a number of ahādeeth from the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم). Also, he placed a chapter heading in his Saheeh entitled: The Saying Of Allah (the Most High),

وَلَا تَنفَعُ الشَّفَاعَةُ عِندَهُ إِلَّا لِمَنْ أَذِنَ لَهُ ۚ حَتَّىٰ إِذَا فُزِّعَ عَن قُلُوبِهِمْ قَالُوا مَاذَا قَالَ رَبُّكُمْ ۖ قَالُوا الْحَقَّ ۖ وَهُوَ الْعَلِيُّ الْكَبِيرُ – 34:23

“Until when fear is banished from their (angels’) hearts, they (angels) say: “What is it that your Lord has said?” They say: “The truth. And He is the Most High, the Most Great.”

Then he narrates ahādeeth which prove that Allah speaks with a voice.” (See Majmū’ Al-Fatāwa of Ibn Taymiyyah 6/527-528)

There has never been a group of Muslims who ever denied that Allah speaks with a voice except for Ibn Kullāb (the founder of the Ash’ari creed) and his followers. Likewise, there has never been a group of Muslims who said: ‘Speech is one essence or a singular entity (معنى واحد) established with the speaker himself’ except for Ibn Kullāb and his followers. (Majmū’ Al-Fatāwa of Ibn Taymiyyah, 6/528)

There has never been from the Muslims anyone who ever said that the letters, that are the ink of the Mushafs, are eternal without beginning. So the affirmation of Letters and Voice for Allah (Al-Harf was-Sawt) with the meaning that the ink used to write the Mushafs and the voices of people who recite the Quran are therefore eternal is a false innovation that none of the Imāms of the religion ever stated. Additionally, the denial of the fact that Allah speaks with a voice and to believe that His Speech is a singular entity (or meaning) present with His Self (معنى واحد قائم بالنفس) is an innovation and a falsehood not mentioned by any of the Salaf or the great Scholars. (Majmū’ Al-Fatāwa of Ibn Taymiyyah, 6/528)

That which the Salaf and the Imams are agreed upon is that the Qur’an is the speech of Allah, revealed, sent down and not created. From Allah, it began, and to Him, it shall return.

And when the Salaf and the great Scholars said: “And to Him, it (the Qur’an) will return.” It means that will be lifted and raised from the hearts and the scrolls (i.e. from the Mushafs upon which it is written) so that there will not remain in the hearts even a verse (Āyah) from it and nor a letter [in the Mushafs] as is reported in a number of narrations of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم). (Majmū’ Al-Fatāwa of Ibn Taymiyyah, 6/528-529)

Who was Abdullah ibn Kullāb (died 240H)? This is where the Ash’aris get their Madhhab.

Imām Adh-Dhahabi (رحمه الله) mentioned him in his Siyar A’lām an-Nubalā (11/174) (summarised): He was the leader of the people of theological rhetoric (mutakallimeen) of Basrah in his time. His name was Abdullah ibn Sa’eed Ibn Kullāb Al-Qattān Al-Basri. He had some writings refuting the Mu’tazilah, and perhaps he [actually] agreed with them [in certain affairs]. Dawood Adh-Dhāhiri learnt kalām (rhetoric) from him as was stated by Abu Tāhir Adh-Dhuhali. It is said that Al-Hārith Al-Muhāsibi studied the sciences of logic and debate from him. He was called Ibn Kullāb, and he was able to draw his opponent to himself through his speech and eloquence. His followers were known as the Kullābiyyah. Some of them consider Abul-Hasan Al-Asha’ri to be among them. Ibn Kullāb would refute the Jahmiyyah. He believed that the Qur’ān was a singular entity established with the Self of Allah, not tied to the Ability and Will of Allah. No one preceded him with this belief at all. He did this in order to resist those who said the Qur’ān was created.

Ibn Kullāb innovated the doctrine of the Speech of Allāh being a single entity (a single meaning) established and present within the Self (Aẓ-Ẓhāt) without voice, letters, unuttered which the Kullābiyyah and the Ashʿarīs refer to as Al-Kalām An-NafsīImām Ibn Al-Qayyim (d. 752AH) stated, “Ibn Kullāb violated the consensus of Ahlul-Bidʿah by [innovating] the belief of Kalām Nafsi and in doing so, he opposed the Revelation, the intellect, the innate nature, the norms, and the Arabic language! He came with something that was not known from anyone before him— and with this, he resembled the Christians in the affair of the Trinity.”

Ibn Taymiyyah stated: “Al-Hārith Al-Muhāsibi ascribed himself to the saying of Ibn Kullāb and for this reason, Ahmad ibn Hanbal ordered that Al-Muhāsabi should be boycotted — and Ahmad would warn against Ibn Kullāb and his followers.” (Dar’u Ta’ārad Al-‘Aql wa-Naql, 2/6)

The Ash’ari madhhab follows the doctrine of kalām (theological rhetoric) — it appeared after the first three excellent generations. They ascribe themselves to Abul-Hasan Al-Ash’ari (died 324AH) and they regard him as their founder. Al-Ash’ari was a staunch Mu’tazili until he reached the age of 40, in around 300 AH. Then he switched to the ideology of the Kullābiyyah which was, as mentioned above, founded by Abdullāh ibn Kullāb (died 240 AH) less than a century before. Ibn Kullāb was from the era of Imām Ahmad ibn Hanbal (رحمه الله) and Imam Ahmad criticised Ibn Kullāb and his followers severely.

Ibn Taymiyyah said: “The saying that Qur’an is from eternity, not with a voice, not with letters; it is not except a single entity (or meaning) present with the Self of Allah  — it is correct to say that it is the saying of the Ash’ariyyah. But the first to utter this in Islam was Abdullah Ibn Kullāb.

The Salaf and the imāms (scholars) would affirm for Allah (the Most High) what is established with His Self of Attributes and they affirmed Actions that are connected to His Will (Al-Mashee’ah) and His Power. The Jahmiyyah denied both of these. So Ibn Kullāb agreed with the Salaf in the establishment of the Eternal Attributes [of the Self], but he rejected the fact that there are Attributes established with Allah that are connected to His Will and Power… So this saying concerning the Qur’an is the saying of Ibn Khullāb in origin and it is the saying of those who followed him such as Al-Ash’ari and others.” (Majmū’ Al-Fatāwa 12/178)

May Allah (the Most High) protect us from the misguidance of the people of innovation and desires.

والحمد لله رب العالمين وصلى الله على نبينا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين.

سبحانك اللهم وبحمدك أشهد أن لا إله إلا أنت، أستغفرك وأتوب إليك

Abu Khadeejah Abdul-Wāhid.
Copyright 2024.

This article was transcribed by Umm Maryam (may Allah reward her) from the classes of Abu Khadeejah ( Please share it with others.

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