“Modernity, Western Liberalism and Materialism in Islamic Discourse.” By Abu Khadeejah ʿAbdul-Wāhid.
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Modernity: Dr Denis Linehan, in the International Encyclopedia of Human Geography, stated that Modernity is “an emphasis upon rationality and science over tradition and myth; a belief in progress and improvement; confidence in human mastery over nature; a focus on humanism(1) individuality, and self-consciousness…”
The Encyclopedia Britannica states “to participate in modernity was to conceive of one’s society as engaging in organizational and knowledge advances that make one’s immediate predecessors appear antiquated or, at least, surpassed…”
Liberalism is “the willingness to respect or accept behaviour or opinions different from one’s own, and openness to new ideas. When applied to theology it is the belief that many traditional beliefs are dispensable, invalidated by modern thought, or liable to change. This means that traditional ideas and doctrines rooted in culture and religion must change and show openness to modern or prevalent views…”
(1) Most frequently, humanism refers to a nontheistic view centred on human agency, and a reliance on science and reason rather than revelation from a supernatural source to understand the world. So, humanism, in essence, is the rejection of religion and God in favour of human ability, science, and reason.