The Concise, Simple and Straight-forward Explanation of the Tawheed of the Exalted Creator – which was Authored by the Shaikhul-Islaam Muhammad b. Abdul-Wahhaab: “Ash-Sharh al-Moojaz al-Mumahhad li Tawheed al-Khaaliq al-Mumajjad alladhi allafahu Shaikhul-Islaam Muhammad”
This is an explanation of Kitaab at-Tawheed of Shaikhul-Islaam Muhammad b. Abdul-Wahhaab (d. 1206H, rahimahullaah) by ash-Shaikh al-Allaamah Ahmad b. Yahyaa an-Najmee (rahimahullaah). So the Shaikh al-‘Allaamah, Ahmad b. Yahyaa an-Najmee (rahimahullaah) said:
Chapter 1: The Excellence of Tawheed and What It Expiates Of Sins
Tawheed has great virtue. From its virtues is that not a single deed is accepted except with Tawheed, and a person cannot be a believer except with Tawheed. From its virtues is that Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, expiates the sins for the one who abandons associating partners with Allaah, due to His saying:
إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَغْفِرُ أَن يُشْرَكَ بِهِ وَيَغْفِرُ مَا دُونَ ذَٰلِكَ لِمَن يَشَاءُ
“Indeed, Allah does not forgive association with Him, but He forgives what is less than that for whom He wills.” [an-Nisaa: 48]
From its virtues it that due to it the servant attains security and safety on the Day of Resurrection; from its virtues is that Allaah guides the person of Tawheed to the truth, and acquaints him with the path of guidance, due to His saying:
الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَلَمْ يَلْبِسُوا إِيمَانَهُم بِظُلْمٍ أُولَٰئِكَ لَهُمُ الْأَمْنُ وَهُم مُّهْتَدُونَ
“They who believe and do not mix their belief with injustice – those will have security, and they are rightly guided.” [al-An’aam: 82]
So the author brings this verse – and this verse informs us that the people of Tawheed, those who actualise it and carry it out, and they do not mix it with Shirk, then they are the ones for whom Allaah will provide security from fear in this world and the next, and He will provide guidance to the truth – and the more a person fulfils Tawheed and acts upon it, the more safety, security and guidance he’ll be provided with, as long as he abandons all forms of Shirk, major and minor. It is authentically reported upon Allaah’s Messenger (salallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) that he explained the term “injustice” in this verse with that which occurs in the verse in Soorah Luqmaan:
يَا بُنَيَّ لَا تُشْرِكْ بِاللَّهِ ۖ إِنَّ الشِّرْكَ لَظُلْمٌ عَظِيمٌ
“O my son, do not associate anything with Allah. Indeed, association with Him is a great injustice.” [Luqmaan: 13]
So the intent of “injustice” in this verse is Shirk, and not sin. So there is a full measure for a full measure and a share for a share. So if a servant is deficient in Tawheed by him practising something of Shirk then likewise he will be deficient in attaining security and guidance.
‘Ubaadah b. Saamit narrated that Allaah’s Messenger (salallaahu ‘alaihi wassallam) said:
“Whoever testifies that there is none worthy of worship except Allaah, alone and without a partner, and that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger, and that ‘Eesaa (Jesus) is the slave of Allaah, His Messenger, and His Word (i.e. “Be”) which He bestowed in Maryam (Mary) and a spirit [created] from Him; and that Paradise is true, and Hellfire is true – then Allaah will admit him into Paradise, whatever his deeds may be.”
[Agreed upon. Bukhaaree, Book of The Sayings of the Prophets; Muslim, Book of Faith, Chapter: The Proof that Whoever Dies Upon Tawheed will for a Surety enter Paradise.]
As for ‘Ubaadah b. as-Saamit al-Ansaaree (radiyallaahu ‘anhu), he was one of the leaders who pledged allegiance on the night of ‘Aqabah, a well-known Companion of Allaah’s Messenger (salallaahu ‘alaihi wassallam). He participated at the battle of Badr. He died at the age of 72, in the year 34AH in Ramlah. ‘Ubaadah said that Allaah’s Messenger (salallaahu ‘alaihi wassallam) said:
“Whoever testifies that there is none worthy of worship except Allaah, alone and without partner, and that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger..”
This testification of faith (the Shahaadah) has conditions which must be fulfilled by the one who utters it, and they are:
1. That one is acquainted with what it means, i.e. that it consists of negation and affirmation.
2. From its conditions is knowledge which negates being ignorant. And this encompasses that which I have already mentioned, and due to the fact that Allaah stated:
إِلَّا مَن شَهِدَ بِالْحَقِّ وَهُمْ يَعْلَمُونَ
“Except for those who testify to the truth [can benefit], and they know.” [Az-Zukhruf: 86]
3. From its conditions is al-yaqeen (certainty), which negates any doubt – so that one does not doubt it, meaning in the Oneness of Allaah in His sole right of worship.
4. From its conditions is al-qubool (acceptance), which negates rejection, so that one accepts its meaning and what it entails.
5. From its conditions is al-inqiyaad (to comply and act), which negates abandonment – so that one complies with what it encompasses.
6. From its conditions is al-ikhlaas (sincerity in worship) which negates shirk.
7. From its conditions is love, which negates hatred.
8. And from them is as-sidq (being true) which negates falsehood.
So it is necessary upon a person who utters this testimony to fulfil these conditions – that he must be upon knowledge concerning what this encompasses – and that is the Oneness of Allaah in His Uloohiyyah (sole right to be worshipped as the one true Deity).
Allaah, the Most High, said:
لَوْ كَانَ فِيهِمَا آلِهَةٌ إِلَّا اللَّهُ لَفَسَدَتَا
“Had there been within the heavens and earth gods besides Allah, they both would have been ruined.” [Al-Anbiyaa: 22]
And His saying:
قُل لَّوْ كَانَ مَعَهُ آلِهَةٌ كَمَا يَقُولُونَ إِذًا لَّابْتَغَوْا إِلَىٰ ذِي الْعَرْشِ سَبِيلًا
“Say, [O Muhammad], “If there had been with Him [other] gods, as they say, then they would have sought to the Owner of the Throne a way.”[Al-Israa: 42]
قُل لَّوْ كَانَ مَعَهُ آلِهَةٌ كَمَا يَقُولُونَ إِذًا لَّابْتَغَوْا إِلَىٰ ذِي الْعَرْشِ سَبِيلًا
Say, [O Muhammad], “If there had been with Him [other] gods, as they say, then they would have sought to the Owner of the Throne, a path.” [Al-Israa: 42]
So whoever utters this Testimony (the Shahaadah) knowing its meaning, and acting upon what it entails and encompasses, negating what it calls to negate, affirming that which it calls to affirm, being certain regarding the Oneness of Allaah, negating and nullifying association of partners with Him, due to him uttering: “Wahdahu laa shareeka lahu” (He alone, without any partners).
The utterance of the Shahaadah (the Testimony) [is also] that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah,, being certain that indeed Muhammad is the Slave of Allaah and His Messenger.Allaah will not accept the religion of person nor his worship if he is not upon the Path of Muhammad, may Allaah make mention of him in the company of the Angels, and may His peace be upon him. So whosoever utters these two Testimonies (Shahaadahs) in the fashion we have mentioned, then such a one will achieve salvation from the punishment of Allaah, and he will attain His reward and His Paradise.
From that which completes this belief:
The Prophet’s (salallaahu ‘alaihi wassallam) saying: “..and that ‘Eesaa (Jesus) is the slave of Allaah, His Messenger, and His Word which He bestowed in Maryam (Mary) and a spirit [created] from Him”
So this “Word” is Allaah’s saying “Be!”, just as He said:
إِنَّ مَثَلَ عِيسَىٰ عِندَ اللَّهِ كَمَثَلِ آدَمَ ۖ خَلَقَهُ مِن تُرَابٍ ثُمَّ قَالَ لَهُ كُن فَيَكُونُ
“Indeed, the example of Jesus to Allah is like that of Adam. He created Him from dust; then He said to him, “Be,” and he was.” [Aali Imraan: 59]
So with this addition, the belief of the Christians is negated which is the belief of filiation, having a son and the Trinity, wherein they claim that Jesus is Allaah, or the son of Allaah, or the third of three in a Trinity with Allaah – so they went to extremes in this matter, and they placed him in other than his rightful place. By this part of the Testimony of faith negated also is the creed of the Jews who believe that Jesus was a child of fornication. And upon both is what is rightfully due to them from Allaah of anger and abhorrence. A Muslim frees himself in front of Allaah from these sorts of beliefs, and he affirms the belief in the Tawheed of Allaah – that Allaah does not have a son, nor a female companion, and that Paradise is real and true, and it is the reward of the pious people of Tawheed (al-muwahhideen). And that Hellfire is true and real, and it is the just recompense for the idolators and disbelievers. Whoever holds to this belief, he will live in goodness, and die in goodness. Allaah will enter him into Paradise whatever his deeds may be, knowing that the Testimony that “none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah” will not be accepted unless it is accompanied with disbelief in Taaghoot and Imaan (true faith) in Allaah.
The saying of Allaah’s Messenger (salallaahu ‘alaihi wassallam): “..then Allaah will admit him into Paradise, whatever his deeds may be.” Meaning that his final abode will be Paradise, whether that be before being punished or after it. Regardless, the end result and final abode for the one who dies upon Tawheed and Faith is Paradise. Such a person is subject to the Will of Allaah – if he dies whilst persistently committing major sins, then his affair is with Allaah, if He wishes, He will pardon him. And if He wishes, He will punish him with a punishment he is deserving of. Then Allaah will take him out of the Hellfire and place him in Paradise.
And if a person dies whilst he has not committed major sins persistently, and even if he has something of major sins, but he repented and died upon repentance, then it is hoped that Allaah will enter him into Paradise without any punishment, due to the statement of Allaah, the Most High:
إِن تَجْتَنِبُوا كَبَائِرَ مَا تُنْهَوْنَ عَنْهُ نُكَفِّرْ عَنكُمْ سَيِّئَاتِكُمْ وَنُدْخِلْكُم مُّدْخَلًا كَرِيمًا
‘If you avoid the major sins which you are forbidden, We will remove from you your lesser sins and admit you to a noble entrance [into Paradise].” [An-Nisaa: 31]
The saying of the author (Shaikhul-Islaam Muhammad b. Abdul-Wahhaab): “Both of them (Bukhaaree and Muslim) report the hadeeth of ‘Itbaan (radiyallaahu ‘anhu):
“Indeed Allaah has forbidden Hell for the person who says: “There is none worthy of being worshipped except for Allaah,” seeking thereby the Face of Allaah.”
[Bukhaaree in his “Saheeh”, Book of Prayer, Chapter: Having Mosques in the Homes, and in other places. Muslim in his “Saheeh”, Book of Imaan: Chapter: The evidence proving that the one who dies upon Tawheed will certainly enter Paradise.]
The intent here is the Hellfire of the disbelievers. The Fire which one enters and remains therein eternally, without ever coming out. Or his saying, “Allaah has forbidden Hell for the person,” could possibly mean that the person who utters the Shahaadah will not remain eternally in the Fire, and for every Monotheist the final abode is Paradise.
The saying of the author: On the authority of Abu Sa’eed al-Khudree (radiyallaahu ‘anhu) that Allaah’s Messenger (salallaahu ‘alaihi wassallam) said:
“Moosaa said: “O my Lord! Teach me something by which I can remember You and supplicate to You.” Allaah answered: “O Moosaa! Say Laa ilaaha illallaah.” Moosaa said: “O my Lord! All Your servants say this.” Allaah said: “O Moosaa, if the seven Heavens and all their inhabitants, besides Myself, and the seven Earths were on one side of the scale and Laa ilaaha illallaah was on the other side of the scale, verily Laa ilaaha illallaah would outweigh them.”
[Reported by Ibn Hibbaan in his “Saheeh” (14/102, no. 6218); Al-Haakim in “Al-Mustadrak ‘alas-Saheehayn” (1/710, no. 1936) – he said: “This hadeeth has an authentic chain of narration but it was not reported by Bukhaaree and Muslim.”; Abu Ya’laa in his “Musnad” (2/528, no. 1393); It was graded Saheeh by Ibn Hajr in “Fathul-Baaree” (11/208)]
What is extrapolated from these words is the greatness of the statement of Tawheed. It will outweigh the greatest of spheres and that is the Seven Heavens, and the Seven Earths, and whatever is inside them, and whatever is between them. These words will outweigh them, rather it will out-balance them. And that is not except due to the Greatness of the One for whom the Testimony is being witnessed for (Allaah), The Oneness in His sole right to be worshipped (al-Uloohiyyah), the Mighty and Majestic.
The saying of the author: At-Tirmidhee reported the hadeeth which he graded as Hasan (Good) from Anas (radiyallaahu ‘anhu), who said: I heard Allaah’s Messenger (salallaahu ‘alaihi wassallam) say:
“Allaah, the Most High, said: O son of Aadam! If you came to Me with sins filling the Earth, then you met Me without associating anything with Me, I will come to you with its (the Earth’s) fill of forgiveness.”
[Muslim in his “Saheeh”, Book of Dhikr and Du’aa, from the Hadeeth of Abu Dharr (radiyallaahu ‘anhu); At-Tirmidhee, Book of Supplications, Chapter: The Virtue of Repentance, and Seeking Forgiveness; Ibn Maajah, Kitaabul-Adab; Ad-Daarimee, Kitaabu-Riqaaq; Ahmad in his “Musnad”, Kitaabul-Ansaar, nos. 20808, 20814, 20860, 20869, 20961, 20994, 21055, from the route of Abu Dharr.]
“Bi-quraabil-ard,” meaning that which nearly fills the Earth. This hadeeth encompasses the fact that whoever meets Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, with the belief of Tawheed, then it is hoped for him that will forgive him.